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Improvement of Technology of Wood Impregnation by Heat-Cold Bath with Amidophosphate KM as a Flame Retardant

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I.M. Ozarkiv, R.A. Demchina, P.P. Grydzhuk, M.F. Fedyna, B.M. Peretyatko

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Flame retardants created as a result of condensed compounds of urea and phosphoric acid are not toxical, pretty cheap and used as a flame retardant – amidophosphate KM. The mission of the investigation was to study the possibility of using the amidophosphate KM for the impregnation of different kinds of wood by the so-called “heat–cold bath”. The task was to develop the effective modes of impregnation by the antypirene. The syntesis of the amidophosphate KM was performed by condensing of 85 % ortho-phosphoric acid and urea in the melt at 135 ?С at molecular ratio as 1: 1. The 40?40?250 mm sized samples of softwood were used for the experimental work. The preheated samples for 60 min at 90 ?С were placed in a cold flame retarder solution for 40 min at 25 ?С. In order to reveal the depth of impregnation by the amidophosphate KM the phosphate ion reaction was used. For the test of materials for fire-resistance the softwood samples were prepared according to the State Standard 16363 with the specifications of the State Standard 2140. The samples of different kinds of wood sized of 10?10?150 mm were sawed out from the sap-wood. The tests of different kinds of wood impregnated with the amidophosphate KM for fire-resistance were conducted according to the State Standard 16383 and the building regulation NPB 251–98 by the flame tube method. The results of the investigation reveal that impregnated wood with the amidophophate KM can be traced from the group of flammable materials to the group of self-extinguishing materials; the amidophophate KM is accepted as a flame retarder of the second group of fire rating when using of 17 % water solution and 40...85 kg per m3 of wood depending on its kind, treated by the “heat–cold bath”. It should be noted, that during the tests of materials for fire-resistance a smoldering process was not observed. Self-combustion after the heat impulse removal took place for a short period of time (32 s for pine wood and 47 s for oak wood). The inflammation of the samples not treated with a flame retarder was observed in 15…20 s, of the impregnated samples – in 85 s of pine wood and in 52 s of oak wood. These data indicate the ability of the applied flame retarder to reduce the processes of wood burning. The average weight lost of pine wood was less than of 16 % and less than of 18 % for oak wood.


I.M. Ozarkiv1, Doctor of Engineering, Professor 
R.A. Demchina1, Candidate of Chemistry, Associate Professor 
P.P. Grydzhuk1, Master 
M.F. Fedyna1, Candidate of Chemistry, Associate Professor 
B.M. Peretyatko2, Acting Deputy Head of Chair

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1National Forest University of Ukraine, General Chuprynka st., 103, Lvov, 79057, Ukraine;е-mail: igor.ozarkiv@gmail.com2Lvov State University of Emergency Management, Kleparovskaya st., 35, Lvov, 79000, Ukraine; е-mail:


wood impregnation, flame retarder, amidophosphate KM, flame retardance, ortho-phosphoric acid, synthesis, condensation.


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Received on November 23, 2014

Improvement of Technology of Wood Impregnation by Heat-Cold Bath with Amidophosphate KM as a Flame Retardant