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Ecological and Economical Basis of Forest Management in the Eastern Regions of the Russian European North Under the Conditions of Climate Changes

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N.M. Bolshakov, V.V. Zhideleva, V.V. Pakhuchiy

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UDС

630*6:630*111 (470.13)

DOI:

10.17238/issn0536-1036.2015.5.77

Annotation

The main issue in research of conservation mechanism of northern taiga (boreal) forests under the conditions of climate change is a study of relations between natural sources, inter-ests of different levels of society, condition and productivity of forest ecosystems, im-provement of the situation dealing with the increasing changes of dominating conifers to hardwood spices and drying of spruce stands. Variety of forest growth conditions and dif-ference in productivity of boreal forests indicate practicability of forest-growth and forest-economical zoning use. Its aim is making a natural-historical basis for regional systems of forest management development. A factor analysis method is used as a basis for the territory division. The total amount of the used parameters – is 51, which includes 28 characteristics of an ecotope, which is the system «climatope – edaphotope»: state of atmosphere, water balance of the territory, soil conditions, and valuation indicators of forest stands. Forestry is considered as an inventory item. Matrixes of factor loading are calculated by means of the key factors method. Four forest growth zones are defined as a result, with seven sub zones within the boundaries. Forest-economical zoning is made taking into account the forest fund characteristics, levels of timber industry development, transport lines accessibility, etc. The territory of the Komi republic was divided into eight zones. Based on a synthesis of forest-growth and forest-economical zoning the scheme of the eco-economical zoning with the division of the territory into four zones and nine sub zones was developed. Within the boundaries of eco-economical zones the systems of forestry activities are made: tundra protective, mountainous and piedmont protective, taiga exploitative. Four main recreational zones are defined: Vychegda-Mezen, Timan, Pechora, and Ural. According to the authors’ calculations, the recreational structure of the Komi republic can provide an annual capacity of recreators about 400–500 thousand people. Conditions and productivity of forest ecosystems were estimated by the amount of annual timber growth depending on unified factors dated in 1961 in forest farms and in 2008 in forestry. Methodology of definition and principles of interpretations were made while forest-growth zoning. It’s known that dependence of annual growth from the unified factors F1 (heat supply) and F2 (climate continentality) can be presented by multiple regression equation (R1 = 0, 97; R2 = 0, 91). According to the equations the average increment in forest farms (1961) and forestry (2008) is calculated. The increments in Kortkeros and Syktyvkar forestrles in 1961 and 2008, are  equal in accordance 1,29 and
1,69 m3/ha per year, are taken as 1.0, but increments in other forestrles were expressed in shares, by estimating the index of relative productivity for forestry. It is established that an average increment in the republic in general in 1961 was 0,99 m3/ha per year, and in 2008 –
1,23 m3/ha. The increment is decreasing from the south to the north and from the western boundaries to the Ural range. This testifies to the importance of not only latitudinal (zonal), but also provincial territory division. Researches testify to a considerable contribution of the climate indicators into the increment dynamics. However, quantitative estimation of contributions into the climate change, forest management activities and changes of forest use structure are worth of the additional research. Climate changes consideration is appropriate in the northern regions where there is a transfer of the northern forest boundary, as well as in the southern regions of the republic with a more significant representative absolute increment.

Authors

N.M. Bolshakov, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor 
V.V. Zhideleva, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor 
V.V. Pakhuchiy, Doctor of Agriculture, Professor

Authors job

Syktyvkar Forest Institute, Branch of Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University named after S.M. Kirov, Lenina, 39, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982, Russia; e-mail: institut@sfi.komi.com

Keywords

nord taiga (boreal) forests, forest resources, timber exploitation, eco-economic regions, silricultural systems, recreation, climate changing.

References

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Received on May 24, 2013

Ecological and Economical Basis of Forest Management in the Eastern Regions of the Russian European North Under the Conditions of Climate Changes

 

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