Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18

Lesnoy Zhurnal

Multivariable Analysis in the Assessment of Spruce Species Specificity (Picea)

Версия для печати

A.V. Kul'kova, N.N. Besschetnova, V.P. Besschetnov

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 1MB )






Trees of the genius Picea abies Dietr. are widely used in urban greening and landscaping. Spruce is one of the main forest-forming species in Russia and the whole world. Successful adaptive selection of trees requires scientific knowledge about each species ecological and physiological states. In the study we had investigated 13 species and forms of spruce introduced to the conditions of Nizhny Novgorod region. All the plants are placed within picetum of Botanical garden of Lobachevsky State University in Nizhny Novgorod. Spasticity of the species in starch and fats content, level of xylem development and its degree of delignification was studied with the use of traditional methods of histochemical analysis. Statistical, variance, factor and cluster analysis were performed. Visible heterogeneity of the studied composition of spruce species according to parameters of their physiological state was found. Significance and statistical validity of the recorded differences were confirmed. Factor analysis allowed presentation of 16 test parameters of plants physiological state by 4 principal components performed as independent comprehensive factors of their differentiation. Cluster analysis based on rated values of initial characteristics and with the use of principal components allowed grouping of the studied species according to their statistical proximity in Euclidean space. Dendrograms constructed for each of these algorithmic schemes had fundamental similarities. Proximity of the exotic species characteristics to the native species P. abies characteristics determined the degree of their compliance with environmental background of the introduction area. Ranking of the considered species according to their remoteness from European spruce allowed assigning to each of the exotic species a rank of compliance of the native species.


A.V. Kul'kova, Postgraduate Student
N.N. Besschetnova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
V.P. Besschetnov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor

Authors job

Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, pr. Gagarina, 97, Nizhny Novgorod,
603107, Russian Federation; e-mail:


spruce, introduction, adaptation, histochemistry, fats, starch, xylem, lignification, physiological status

For citation

Kul'kova A.V., Besschetnova N.N., Besschetnov V.P. Multivariable Analysis in the Assessment of Spruce Species Specificity (Picea). Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2018, no. 6, pp. 23–38. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2018.6.23


1. Besschetnov V.P., Besschetnova N.N. Obrazovaniye i lignifikatsiya ksilemy plyusovykh derev’yev sosny obyknovennoy [Formation and Lignification of Xylem of Pine Plus Trees]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2013, no. 2, pp. 45–52.
2. Besschetnova N.N. Genotipicheskaya neidentichnost’ plyusovykh derev’yev sosny obyknovennoy po soderzhaniyu krakhmala [Genotypic Nonidentity of Starch Content in Plus Trees of Scots Pine]. Izvestiya Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Izvestia Orenburg State Agrarian University], 2013, no. 4(42), pp. 20–23.
3. Besschetnova N.N. Sosna obyknovennaya (Pinus sylvestris L.). Effektivnost’ otbora plyusovykh derev’yev: monogr. [Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Efficiency of Plus Trees Selection: Monography]. Nizhny Novgorod, NGSKHA Publ., 2016. 464 p. (In Russ.)
4. Besschetnova N.N., Besschetnov V.P., Kul’kova A.V., Mishukova I.V. Soderzhaniye krakhmala v tkanyakh pobegov raznykh vidov eli (Picea A. Dietr.) v usloviyakh introduktsii [Starch Content in Tissues of Shoots of Different Spruce Species (Picea A. Dietr.) under Introduction Conditions]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2017, no. 4, pp. 57–68. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2017.4.57
5. Bobrinev V.P., Pak L.N., Banshchikova E.A. Agrotekhnika vyrashchivaniya seyantsev eli sibirskoy v Zabaykal’skom kraye [Agricultural Cultivation of Siberian Spruce Seedlings in Zabaykalsky Krai]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2017, no. 3, pp. 70–77. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2017.3.70
6. Dospekhov B.A. Metodika polevogo opyta (s osnovami statisticheskoy obrabotki rezul’tatov issledovaniy): ucheb. [Methodology of Field Experiment (with the Basics of Statistical Analysis of Research Results): Textbook]. Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1985. 351 p. (In Russ.)
7. Zarubina L.V. Sostoyaniye estestvennogo vozobnovleniya eli v melkolistvennykh lesakh na severe Rossii [State of Spruce Natural Regeneration in Small-Leaved Forests in the North of Russia]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2016, no. 3, pp. 52–65. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2016.3.52
8. Konovalov V.N., Zarubina L.V. Otsenka zhiznesposobnosti eli v bereznyake chernichnom v protsesse ego vozrastnogo razvitiya [Assessment of Viability of Spruce in Bilberry Birch Forest in Its Age Development]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2016, no. 5, pp. 44–60. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2016.5.44
9. Mamayev S.A. O problemakh i metodakh vnutrividovoy sistematiki drevesnykh rasteniy. II. Amplituda izmenchivosti [The Problems and Methods of Intraspecific Taxonomy of Wood Plants. II. Amplitude of Variability]. Zakonomernosti formoobrazovaniya i differentsiatsii vida u drevesnykh rasteniy: trudy In-ta ekologii rasteniy i zhivotnykh. Vyp. 64 [Patterns of Morphogenesis and Differentiation of Wood Plants Species. Proceedings of the Institute of Plants and Animals Ecology. Iss. 64]. Sverdlovsk, RISO UFAN SSSR Publ., 1969, pp. 3–38.
10. Nikitin K.E., Shvidenko A.Z. Metody i tekhnika obrabotki lesovodstvennoy informatsii [Methods and Technology of Forestry Information Processing]. Мoscow, Lesnaya promyshlennost’ Publ., 1978. 272 p. (In Russ.)
11. Prozina N.M. Botanicheskaya mikrotekhnika: ucheb. posobiye [Botanical Microtechnics: Educational Textbook]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1960. 205 p. (In Russ.) 
12. Sungurova N.R., Babich N.A., Sungurov R.V., Lyubov V.K., Popov A.N. Energeticheskiy potentsial kul’tur sosny i eli [Energy Potential of Pine and Spruce Crops]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2017, no. 3, pp. 78–84. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2017.3.78
13. Sungurova N.R., Konovalov V.N. Assimilyatsionnyy apparat eli v kul’turakh na dolgomoshnoy vyrubke [Spruce Assimilation Apparatus in Plantations at the Polytric Cutting]. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2016, no. 2, pp. 31–40. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2016.2.31
14. Brahim M.B., Loustau D., Gaudillère J.P., Saur E. Effects of Phosphate Deficiency on Photosynthesis and Accumulation of Starch and Soluble Sugars in 1-Year-Old Seedlings of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait). Annals of Forest Science, 1996, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 801–810. Available at: 4312_1996_53_4_ART0001.pdf (accessed 02.02.2018). DOI: 10.1051/forest:19960401
15. Kramer P.J. The Role of Physiology in Forestry. The Forestry Chronicle, 1956, vol. 32, iss. 3, pp. 297–308. DOI: 10.5558/tfc32297-3
16. Larsson E., Sundström J.F., Sitbon F., von Arnold S. Expression of PaNAC01, a Picea abies CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON Orthologue, Is Regulated by Polar Auxin Transport and Associated with Differentiation of the Shoot Apical Meristem and Formation of Separated Cotyledons. Annals of Botany, 2012, vol. 110, iss. 4, pp. 923–934. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcs151
17. Mayr S., Bertel C., Dämon B., Beikircher B. Static and Dynamic Bending Has Minor Effects on Xylem Hydraulics of Conifer Branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris). Plant, Cell & Environment, 2014, vol. 37, iss. 9, pp. 2151–2157. Available at: (accessed 25.07.2014). DOI: 10.1111/pce.12307
18. Myking T., Vakkari P., Skrøppa T. Genetic Variation in Northern Marginal Taxus baccata L. Populations. Implications for Conservation. Forestry, 2009, vol. 82, iss. 5, pp. 529–539. Available at: (accessed 01.12.2009). DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpp022
19. Scoffoni C. Modelling the Outside-Xylem Hydraulic Conductance: Towards a New Understanding of Leaf Water Relations. Plant, Cell & Environment, 2015, vol. 38, iss. 1, pp. 4–6. Available at: (accessed 22.08.2014). DOI: 10.1111/pce.12433
20. Tausz M., Bytnerowicz A., Arbaugh M.J., Wonisch A., Grill D. Multivariate Patterns of Biochemical Responses of Pinus ponderosa Trees at Field Plots in the San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California. Tree Physiology, 2001, vol. 21, iss. 5, pp. 329–336. Available at: (accessed 01.03.2001). DOI: 10.1093/treephys/21.5.329
21. Woodruff D.R., Meinzer F.C. Water Stress, Shoot Growth and Storage of Non-Structural Carbohydrates Along a Tree Height Gradient in a Tall Conifer. Plant, Cell & Environment, 2011, vol. 34, iss. 11, pp. 1920–1930. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02388.x (accessed 01.07.2011). DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02388.x
22. Zou J., Sun Y., Li L., Wang G., Yue W., Lu Z., Wang Q., Liu J. Population Genetic Evidence for Speciation Pattern and Gene Flow Between Picea wilsonii, P. morrisonicola and P. neoveitchii. Annals of Botany, 2013, vol. 112, iss. 9, pp. 1829–1844. Available at: (11.11.2013). DOI: 10.1093/ aob/mct241

Received on February 01, 2018

Multivariable Analysis in the Assessment of Spruce Species Specificity (Picea)


Electronic submission of articles