Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Integrated Assessment of Raw Material Resources of Birch Forests

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

A.V. Gryazkin, Thanh Tran Trung, Hung Vu Van, A.N. Prokof’yev, Minh An Hoang

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.3MB )






The research is aimed at a comprehensive assessment of the forest site resources deposited in a birch blueberry forest. The relevance of the work is based on the increasing interest of countries and regions in the diversity of forest ecosystem resources. A material and financial assessment of the major types of resources of the forest site with a birch stand is given for the first time. The stand composition is as follows: birch, 65 %; spruce, 21 %; aspen, 8 %; alder, 3%; elm, 2 %; and maple, 1 %. The stand is described by the following parameters: the relative density – 0.6; the quality class – II; and the growing stock – 344 m3/ha. Food and medicinal resources, wood and forest chemical raw materials, honey plants and birch sap, and household products were taken into account in the comprehensive assessment.
The composition and reserves of the forest site reserves were assessed on the 10 m2 circular survey plots in accordance with the patent no. RU 2084129 C1 “Seedling Growth Registering Method”. The commercial species reserves of edible, technical and medicinal plants were estimated using the mowing method; berries – by a single collection during the ripening period. The sap production of the birch forests was determined empirically, based on the stand parameters. The prices for all types of resources were used as of 2019. It is shown that the cost of timber on the forest site is about 15 % (200,840 rub/ha) of the total cost of the other recorded types of resources, i.e. totally 2,643 rub/ha in terms of one year. The stock is dominated by firewood – over 36 %; the share of industrial wood is 34 %. The sap productivity of the birch forest is more than 12 ths L/ha per season. With an average birch sap cost of 20 rub/L, the income from the sale of seasonal sap volume per 1 ha can be more than 257 ths rub. By-products account for the largest share of revenue, ranging from 70 to 85 % depending on the season of the year. The share of edible and medicinal plants is about 10 %. The total income from the sale of the recorded types of resources of this forest site is estimated to be 1.2 mln rub/ha. The most important feature of this kind of resources is their ability to regenerate themselves without human participation. The main types of resources in the birch forest can be used annually during the entire period of reforestation. The obtained results can be used when drafting an agreement on the lease and a project for the development of a forest site where integrated utilization of forest resources or their individual types is assumed.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
(CC BY 4.0) license • The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest


Anatoly V. Gryazkin, Doctor of Biology, Prof.; ResearcherID: C-6699-2018, ORCID:
Thanh Tran Trung, Postgraduate Student; ResearcherID: ABB-4415-2021, ORCID:
Hung Vu Van, Postgraduate Student; ORCID:
Andrey N. Prokof’yev, Postgraduate Student; ORCID:
Minh An Hoang, Postgraduate Student; ResearcherID: ABB-5138-2021, ORCID:


Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University named after S.M. Kirov, Institutskiy per., 5, liter U, Saint Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation; e-mail:,


forest plot, birch forest, raw material resources of forest, integrated use of wood, material and financial assessment of forest resources

For citation

Gryazkin A.V., Tran Trung Thanh, Vu Van Hung, Prokof’yev A.N., Hoang Minh An. Integrated Assessment of Raw Material Resources of Birch Forests. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2022, no. 1, pp. 23–35. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2022-1-23-35


1. Albegov R.B. Assessment of the Natural Resource Potential of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Natural Resources of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Vladikavkaz, Proyekt-Press Publ., 2001, рp. 16–26.
2. Gryazkin A.V. Renewable Potential of Taiga Forests (Case Study of Spruce Forests in Northwest Russia). Saint Petersburg, SPbGLTA Publ., 2001. 188 p.
3. Gryazkin A.V., Belyaeva N.V., Danilov D.A., Vanzhurak G.V., Hung Vu Van. Thickness and Weight Variability of Birch Bark along the Trunk Length. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2019, no. 2, рp. 32–39. DOI:
4. Gryazkin A.V., Lyubimov A.V., Samsonova I.D., Khetagurov Kh.M., Hung Vu Van, Vandzhurak G.V. Productivity of Birch Juice According to the Number of Channels on the Trunk. Agrarnyy nauchnyy zhurnal [Agrarian Scientific Journal], 2017, no. 6, рp. 7–10.
5. Gryazkin A.V., Samsonov I.D., Novikova M.A., Phan Thanh Lam, Vanjurak G.V., Hung Vu Van. The Variability of Biometric Indicators of Birch Bark, Depending on the Characteristics of the Forest. Izvestia Sankt-Peterburgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii [News of the Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical Academy], 2018, iss. 222, рp. 94–109. DOI:
6. Zagreyev V.V., Sukhikh V.I., Shvidenko A.Z., Gusev N.N., Moshkalev A.G. All-Union Standards for Forest Inventory: Handbook. Moscow, Kolos Publ., 1992. 495 p.
7. Kurlovich L.E., Nikolayev G.V., Cherkasov A.F., Kositsyn V.N. Guide on Accounting and Valuation of Secondary Forest Resources and Products of Secondary Forest Use. Pushkino, VNIILM Publ., 2003. 315 p.
8. Lebedev Y.V., Lebedev M.Y., Neklyudov I.A. Complex Estimation of Forests of the Urals and Western Siberia. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta lesa – Lesnoy vestnik [Forestry Bulletin], 2013, no. 4, рp. 172–176.
9. Order of the Federal forestry Agency of December 5, 2011 No. 511 “On the Approval of the Rules for Harvesting Forest Food Resources and Collecting Medicinal Plants”.
10. The Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 20, 2018 No. 1989-r “On Approval of the Strategy for the Development of the Forest Complex of the Russian Federation until 2030”.
11. Kochkin A.A., Gryazkin A.V., Aparin V.B. Weed Species Predominant in Forest Nurseries in the Leningrad Region. Certificate of State Registration of the Database No. 2017620231, 2018.
12. Hung Vu Van, Hetagurov Kh.M., Kochkin A.A., Novikova M.A., Thao Do Van. The Release Rate of Birch Juice Depending on the Trunk Diameter and Crown Shape. Agrarnyy nauchnyy zhurnal [Agrarian Scientific Journal], 2016, no. 10, рp. 46–49.
13. Cherkasov A.F., Mironov K.A., Shutov V.V., Tyak G.V., Verem’yeva S.S. et al. Non-Wood Forest Resources of the Kostroma Region: Wild Fruits and Berries, Medicinal Plants and  Mushrooms. Kostroma, KGTU Publ., 2006. 250 p.
14. Shmatkov N.M. Non-Wood Resources of the Forest – Human Health and Health of the Economy of Forest Areas. Byulleten’ Tsentra ekologicheskoy politiki Rossii “Na puti k ustoychivomu razvitiyu Rossii”, 2004, no. 28, рp. 17–19.
15. Arnold J.E.M., Pérez M.R. Can Non-Timber Forest Products Match Tropical Forest Conservation and Development Objectives? Ecological Economics, 2001, vol. 39, iss. 3, рр. 437–447. DOI:
16. Boxall P.C., Murray G., Unterschultz J.R., Boxall P.C. Non-Timber Forest Products from the Canadian Boreal Forest: An Exploration of Aboriginal Opportunities. Journal of Forest Economics, 2003, vol. 9, iss. 2, рр. 75–96. DOI:
17. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Main Report. FA O Forestry Paper No. 140. Rome, FAO, 2001. Available at: (accessed 24.04.20).
18. Heinrich M. Book Review. Non-Timber Forest Products. Medicinal Herbs, Fungi, Edible Fruits and Nuts and Other Natural Products from the Forest. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2002, vol. 79, iss. 3, рр. 393–394. DOI:
19. Kidane B., van der Maesen L.J.G., van Andel T., Asfaw Z. Ethnoveterinary Medicinal Plants Used by the Maale and Ari Ethnic Communities in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2014, vol. 153, iss. 1, рр. 274–282. DOI:
20. Larsen H.O., Olsen C.S., Boon T.E. The Non-Timber Forest Policy Process in Nepal: Actors, Objectives and Power. Forest Policy and Economics, 2000, vol. 1, iss. 3-4, рр. 267–281. DOI:
21. Lung N.N. The Status of Forest Resources in Vietnam: Matter of Environment, Economy, Society and Resolutions. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2001, no. 12, рр. 891–893.
22. Mahapatra A.K., Tewari D.D. Importance of Non-Timber Forest Products in the Economic Valuation of Dry Deciduous Forests of India. Forest Policy and Economics, 2005, vol. 7, iss. 3, рр. 455–467. DOI:
23. Mahmood Ad., Mahmood Aq., Malik R.N., Shinwari Z.K. Indigenous Knowledge of Medicinal Plants from Gujranwala District, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2013, vol. 148, iss 2, рр. 714–723. DOI:
24. Misra M.K., Dash S.S. Biomass and Energetics of Non-Timber Forest Resources in a Cluster of Tribal Villages on the Eastern Ghats of Orissa, India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2000, vol. 18, iss. 3, рр. 229–247. DOI:
25. Nakazono E.M., Bruna E.M. Experimental Harvesting of the Non-Timber Forest Product Ischnosiphon polyphyllus in Central Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 2004, vol. 190, iss. 2-3, рр. 219–225. DOI:
26. Non-Wood News 13. Rome, FAO, 2006. 92 p.
27. Nygren A., Lacuna-Richman C., Keinänen K., Alsa L. Ecological, Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Factors Influencing the Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products to Local Livelihoods: Case Studies from Honduras and the Philippines. Small-Scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 2006, vol. 5, iss. 2, рр. 249–269. DOI:
28. Scott A.D., Burger J.A., Crane B. Expanding site productivity research to sustain non-timber forest functions. Forest Ecology and Management, 2006, vol. 227, iss. 1-2, рр. 185–192. DOI:
29. Vasilev Z., Markov I., Jambazova M. Methodology for Economic Evaluation and Commercialization of Environmental Services Provided to the Population in Protected Recreational Forests. (Bulgaria). Science of Gorata, 2003, vol. 40, no. 1, рp. 3–32.
30. Wong J.L.G., Thornber K., Baker N. Resource Assessment of Non-Wood Forest Products: Experience and Biometric Principles. Non-Wood Forest Products 13. Rome, FAO, 2001. 109 p.


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"