Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Features of Calculated Truck Load Estimation at Antecedent Design Stage of Chokerless Skidding System Based on Computer Experiment

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

I.R. Shegelman, P.V. Budnik

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.6MB )






Efficiency improving of the forest sector cannot be achieved without development of the forest machines design methods. Analysis of the studies devoted to this issue shows that insufficient attention was paid to it. The research objectives were to analyze the influence of the probabilistic nature of tree parameters on the load from moving tree bundle acting on a chokerless skidding system, and to determine the range of values of the necessary load-carrying capacity of the system’s chassis based on the analysis results. The research was based on computer experiment consist of tree bundle generating necessary for the full filling of the skidding system chain grapple. The parameters of generated trees were determined by the taxation conditions of the Karelian Republic forest stands. Forty five variation series characterizing the mass distribution of a skidding tree bundle were obtained based on the computer experiment results processing. The variation curve shifted to the right side along the mass axis of a tree bundle, and its shape changed with the increase of chain grapple size. The curve was stretched slightly and became more flat; the maximum value of the relative frequency of tree bundle mass decreased. Tree bundle mass fluctuated significantly at the same size of chain grapple. The difference between the maximum and minimum mass values of tree bundles was in the range of 3.7–5.6 tons. It increased with the increase of chain grapple size. The analytical dependence of tree bundle mass necessary for determina-tion the load-carrying capacity of the chokerless skidding system chassis on the chain grap-ple size was found. The recommended values of the chassis load-carrying capacity in the considered range of chain grapple sizes (1–2.2 m2) are in the range of 5.5–12.4 tons. The obtained results can be used at antecedent design stage of forest machines, as well as at technical and economic assessment of chokerless skidding systems operating in the Republic of Karelia.


I.R. Shegelman, Doctor of Engineering, Prof.; ResearcherID: P-9793-2019, ORCID: 0000-0001-5133-4586
P.V. Budnik, Candidate of Engineering, Head of the Department of Intellectual Property and Invention Protection; ResearcherID:E-1782-2015,ORCID:0000-0002-8701-4442


Petrozavodsk State University, prosp. Lenina, 33, Petrozavodsk, 185910, Russian Federa-tion; e-mail:, budnikpavel@yandeх.ru


chokerless skidding, machine design, lift capacity, mass of tree bundle, computer experiment, distribution function, probability


The research was carried out within the framework of the grant of the President of the Russian Federation no. MK-5321.2018.8.

For citation

Shegelman I.R., Budnik P.V. Features of Calculated Truck Load Estimation at Antecedent Design Stage of Chokerless Skidding System Based on Computer Experiment. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2019, no. 3, pp. 82–96. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2019.3.82


1. Antonova N.E. Institutional Changes in the National Forest Complex: The Evalua-tion of Spatial Effects. Regionalistica [Regionalistics], 2018, vol. 5, no 2. pp. 21–32. DOI: 10.14530/reg.2018.2.21
2. Belenkiy Yu.I., Bukalov D.A. Representation Features of an Effective Criterion for Logging Production Technological Process Formation. Izvestia Sankt-Peterburgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii [News of the Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical Academy], 2008, iss. 185, pp. 81–85.
3. Vinogorov G.K. To the Procedure of Substantiation of Calculated Trees in Solving the Forest Management Issues. Trudy TsNIIME, 1972, no. 122, pp. 52–67.
4. Grigoryeva V.V., Sokolinskaya Y.M. Key directions of sustainable development of en-trepreneurship in the forest sector of economics. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo uni-versiteta inzhenernykh tekhnologiy [Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineer-ing Technologies], 2018, vol. 80, no 2, pp. 442–448. DOI: 10.20914/2310-1202-2018-2-442-448
5. Zakharov V.K. Shape of Tree Trunks and Methods of Its Research. Collection of Academic Papers of the Belarusian Forestry Institute named after S.M. Kirov, 1957, iss. 10, pp. 77–91.
6. Kochegarov V.G., Bit Yu.A., Men’shikov V.N. Technology and Machines of Log-ging Operations: Textbook for Universities. Moscow, Lesnaya promyshlennost’ Publ., 1990. 392 p.
7. Lebkov V.F. Approximation of Stem Generatrix and its Form Identification by Cumulative Distribution Curve. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Forestry Journal], 2002, no. 5, pp. 16–23.
8. Petrovskiy V.S., Malyshev V.V., Murzinov Yu.V. Parameters Simulation of Tree Trunks in a Stand. Lesotekhnicheskiy Zhurnal [Forestry Engineering Journal], 2012, no. 4, pp. 18–22.
9. Skurikhin V.I., Korpachev V.P. Choice Substantiation of Technology and Machine Systems for Logging Operations. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin of KrasSAU], 2007, no. 1, pp. 203–209.
10. Sukhikh A.N., Ivanov V.A., Syromakha S.M. Substantiation of Technological Parameters of the Universal Logging Machine in Logging Production of Irkutsk Region. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin of KrasSAU], 2010, no. 7, pp. 133–140.
11. Shegelman I.R., Budnik P.V., Bаklagin V.N. Estimation of the Truck Load of the Forest Tractor as an Important Factor of Designing and Creating Progressive Forest Ma-chines. Sovremennyye naukoyemkiye tekhnologii [Modern High Technologies], 2018, no. 11, part 1, pp. 78–83. DOI: 10.17513/snt.37241
12. Shegelman I.R., Skrypnik V.I., Galaktionov O.N. Equipment of Modern Logging. Saint Petersburg, Profi-Inform Publ., 2005. 344 p.
13. Shufang Y. Increase in efficiency of activity of the timber industry enterprisesin the territory of the Russian Federation. Sistemy. Metody. Tekhnologii [Systems. Methods. Technologies], 2018, no. 1(37), pp. 130–135. DOI: 10.18324/2077-5415-2018-1-130-135
14. Behjou F.K, Majnounian B., Namiranian M., Dvořák J. Time Study and Skidding Capacity of the Wheeled Skidder Timberjack 450C in Caspian Forests. Journal of Forest Science, 2008, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 183–188. DOI: 10.17221/5/2008-JFS
15. Borz S.A. A Review of the Romanian and International Practices in Skidding Opera-tions. The XIV World Forestry Congress “Forests and People: Investing in a Sustainable Fu-ture”, September 7 – 11, 2015, Durban, the Republic of South Africa. Durban, 2015, pp. 1–11.
16. Cantú R.P., LeBel L., Gautam Sh. A Context Specific Machine Replacement Model: A Case Study of Forest Harvesting Equipment. International Journal of Forest En-gineering, 2017, vol. 28, iss. 3, pp. 124–133. DOI: 10.1080/14942119.2017.1357416
17. Golyakevich S.A., Goronovskii A.R. Evaluation of Loading Dynamics and Fa-tigue Life for a Forwarder Half-Frame Articulation. Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability, 2017, vol. 46, iss. 5, pp. 463–471. DOI: 10.3103/S1052618817050077
18. Gray J.P., Vantsevich V.V., Paldan J. Agile Tire Slippage Dynamics for Radical Enhancement of Vehicle Mobility. Journal of Terramechanics, 2016, vol. 65, pp. 14–37. DOI: 10.1016/j.jterra.2016.01.002
19. Iff R.H., Koger J.L., Burt E.C., Culver E.W. C-A-R-T-S: Capacity Analysis of Rubber-Tired Skidders. Transactions of the ASAE, 1984, vol. 27, iss. 3, pp. 660–664. DOI: 10.13031/2013.32847
20. Ismoilov A., Sellgren U., Andersson K., Löfgren B. A Comparison of Novel Chassis Suspended Machines for Sustainable Forestry. Journal of Terramechanics, 2015, vol. 58, pp. 59–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.jterra.2015.01.002
21. Kelly M.C., Germain R.H., Bick S. Impacts of Forestry Best Management Prac-tices on Logging Costs and Productivity in the Northeastern USA. Journal of Forestry, 2017, vol. 115, iss. 6, pp. 503–512. DOI: 10.5849/JOF.2016-031R1
22. Kluender R., Lortz D., McCoy W., Stokes B., Klepac J. Removal Intensity and Tree Size Effects on Harvesting Cost and Profitability. Forest Products Journal, 1998, vol. 48, iss. 1, pp. 54–59.
23. Kulak D., Stańczykiewicz A., Szewczyk G. Productivity and Time Consumption of Timber Extraction with a Grapple Skidder in Selected Pine Stands. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 2017, vol. 38, iss. 1, pp. 55–63.
24. Phillips R.A. Skidder Load Capacity and Fuel Consumption HP-41C Program. Res. Pap. NE-537; Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Noth-western Experiment Station; 1983. 7 p.
25. Spinelli R., Magagnotti N. Wood Extraction with Farm Tractor and Sulky: Esti-mating Productivity, Cost and Energy Consumption. Small-scale Forestry, 2012, vol. 11, iss. 1, pp. 73–85. DOI: 10.1007/s11842-011-9169-8
26. Stoilov S., Kostadinov G.D. Effect of Weight Distribution on the Slip Efficiency of a Four-Wheel-Drive Skidder. Biosystems Engineering, 2009, vol. 104, iss. 4, pp. 486–492. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.08.011
27. Vechinski C.R., Johnson C.E., Raper R.L. Evaluation of an Empirical Traction Equation for Forestry Tires. Journal of Terramechanics, 1998, vol. 35, iss. 1, pp. 55–67. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-4898(98)00012-3
28. Vusić D., Šušnjar M., Marchi E., Spina R., Zečić Ž., Picchio R. Skidding Opera-tions in Thinning and Shelterwood Cut of Mixed Stands – Work Productivity, Energy Inputs and Emissions. Ecological Engineering, 2013, vol. 61, part A, pp. 216–223. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.09.052
29. Wang J., Greene W.D. An Interactive Simulation System for Modeling Stands, Harvests, and Machines. Journal of Forest Engineering, 2013, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 81–99. DOI: 10.1080/08435243.1999.10702727
30. Wang J., LeDoux Ch.B. Estimating and Validating Ground-Based Timber Har-vesting Production through Computer Simulation. Forest Science, 2003, vol. 49, iss. 1, pp. 64–76. DOI: 10.1093/forestscience/49.1.64

Received on March 15, 2019

Features of Calculated Truck Load Estimation at Antecedent Design Stage of Chokerless Skidding System Based on Computer Experiment


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"