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Tropospheric Ozone and Its Impact on the Early Growth and Development of Scots Pine and Spruce of Different Geographical Origins

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N.A. Prozherina

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The increasing human impact on environment has led to increasing greenhouse gases con-centrations in the Earth atmosphere and changing the energy balance in the ecosystems. The aim of this study to investigate reaction of pine and spruce seedlings, originating from dif-ferent regions of the European part of Russia on the effects of elevated concentrations of ground-level ozone on the early stages of the development of conifers. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons in the Botanical Garden of the Kuopio University, Fin-land, on 4 control fields and 4 ozone fields. In ozone fields gas concentrations exceed the ambient in 1.4 times. Increasing ozone concentration in the atmospheric surface layer caused a decrease in the amount of germinated seeds, especially for Scots pine. Amount of germinated seeds of spruce under the ozone influence significantly did not change. Statisti-cally significant differences of shoots length between the different geographical pine and spruce origins were found. The needles dry mass accumulation under ozone exposure was decreased mainly in the northern pine populations. Statistically significant changes in the spruce accumulation of needles, roots and shoots biomass did not found. However we ob-served trend to dry weight increasing in the all origins, except in the most northern popula-tion from the Pinega, the Arkhangelsk region. Elevated ozone concentrations did not signifi-cantly change pine and spruce needle length in all studied geographical origins. This is con-firms our previous conclusion about the stability of this parameter under the impact of other air pollutants. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations are more sensitive to ozone than of the Spruce (Picea spp.) populations. Elevating ozone in the atmospheric ground-level can destroy the germination of seeds and growth of Pine and Spruce seedlings. This can have large negative consequences on conifers regeneration in the future.


N.A. Prozherina, Candidate of Biology, Senior Researcher

Authors job

Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, 23, Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia; e-mail:


troposheric ozone, Scots pine, spruce, geographical origins, growth.


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Tropospheric Ozone and Its Impact on the Early Growth and Development of Scots Pine and Spruce of Different Geographical Origins