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Studying of the Interaction of Condensed Lignin with Nitric Acid in the Water-Organosolv Environment

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Yu.G. Khabarov, D.E. Lakhmanov

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The purpose of research is studying the depolymerizing effect of nitric acid on a hydrolytic lignin in the water-organosolv environment. The influence of solvent composition on the depolymerization of the condensed lignins with nitric acid was studied. Reaction of a hydro-lytic lignin with nitric acid was carried out in the installation with the backflow condenser in thermostatically controlled conditions within a specified time span. For this purpose 1 g of lignin and a specified volume of reagent were added into the flask. The reagent was pre-pared by mixing nitric acid concentration of 65 % with the solvent in a ratio of 1: 4 by vol-ume. When the reaction had been completed the undissolved part was separated from the solution by vacuum filtration. The precipitate was washed with water until the neutral pH, and then was dried to constant weight in a vacuum desiccator. Effectiveness of depolymeri-zation was assessed by the dissolution of lignin, expressed in percentage. It was found, that the most effective depolymerization took place in water-dioxane media. It was established, that a complete depolymerization of condensed lignins proceeded for 15 ... 20 minutes if the reaction of hydrolytic lignin with nitric acid was carried out in aqueous dioxane solution containing not more than of 25 % (by volume) of water. The initial dissolution rate of hy-drolytic technical lignin changes with increasing temperature of the reaction by degrees. The studies of the reaction kinetics indicated that the initial rate of reaction in the temperature range from 50 to 75 °C increased linearly with increasing temperature. At higher tempera-tures, its influence on the process rate is significantly greater. At more than 75 °C the reac-tion temperature coefficient is several times larger. Electronic spectra of alkaline solutions of depolymerized products are significantly different from the spectra of lignins. The correct description of spectra requires 4 – 5 Gaussian. The average approximation error is not more than 2.5 %.


Yu.G. Khabarov, Doctor of Chemistry, Professor 
D.E. Lakhmanov, Postgraduate Student


Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, 17, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russia; e-mail:


condensed lignins, nitric acid, depolymerization, dioxane, ethanol.


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Studying of the Interaction of Condensed Lignin with Nitric Acid in the Water-Organosolv Environment


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