Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Microphenology of the Female Reproductive Cycle and Structure of Seed Crops of Scotch Pine in the Northern Taiga

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

M.V. Surso

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 2.4MB )






On the basis of studying of histological preparations the description of a microphenology of a female reproductive cycle of Scots pine in northern taiga is given. Irregularities in histo-genesis of the female reproductive structures, leading to destructive type of ovules develop-ment and, as consequence, to the general decrease in quality of seeds are revealed. It is shown that in northern taiga by the time of pollination some tenth shares of percent from total of ovules in fertile zone of pine macrostrobiles are exposed to necroses. Differentiation of the future crop on quality of seeds begins soon after pollination. The principal causes leading to necrosis of ovules is absence of pollination, low viability or sterility male and (or) female gametophytes, and geitonogamy. In case of destruction of ovule soon after pollina-tion, prior to the beginning of nuclear gametophyte formation, on the tip of seed's wing re-mains only hardly appreciable pycnotic formation. If the ovule necrosis has occurred at stage of nuclear gametophyte formation, or at an initial stage of formation of a cellular ga-metophyte – develops fine-grained seeds – very small seeds, as a matter of fact, the dried up ovules, with completely necrotic internal contents and an underdeveloped seed's cover. The destruction of ovules at later stages of embryonal developments leads to formation of so-called empty ("deaf") seeds, in the sizes close to normally developed (“full”) seeds, but with completely destructivity soft tissues. The parity of these categories of seeds in the general structure of crops in population, in individual tree and in each individual female strobile strongly varies. By the results of experiments on pine artificial pollination the dynamics degradation processes in pine ovules depending on conditions and type of pollination is de-scribed. In not pollinated pine strobiles the degeneration of ovules tissues was observed in 5-7 days after the completion of receptation period, and in 2 weeks in not pollinated strobiles there was no normally functioning ovule. In 30 days almost all not pollinated ovules were died. Mass down-fall of not pollinated strobiles, begun in the end of the first decade of July almost simultaneously at all trees, approximately in 70 days after pine "flowering" has come to the end with almost full down-fall of all cones. The degeneration of tissues of the ovules, pollinated with necrotic pollen, proceeded more slowly, than not pollinated, and in some cases by the vegetation end in this variant of experiences normally functioning nuclear ga-metophytes were observed. At a geitonogamy the amount of the ovules which were lost at early stages of development was much more, than at a xenogamy, that was expressed in more down-fall of strobiles. Further all structures of ovule developed normally till the ferti-lization. At geitonogamy the average weight of mature cones, average quantity and total mass of seeds in one cone have been decreased, and also viability of seeds, their technical germinability and energy of germination have been decreased, the amount of fine-grained seeds has been increased. Thus the linear sizes of cones, weight of 1000 full seeds, absolute viability of seeds, average seed rest and length of hypocotyl did not change in comparison with xenogamy. Absolutely different ways of mutual interaction were observed at pollina-tion by the weakened pollen. Pollination by such pollen led to various deviations from nor-mal development of ovules. In all variants of experiences close positive correlation between percent of degenerating ovules and percent of the down-fall strobiles was observed only in a year of pollination.


M.V. Surso, Doctor of Biology, Senior Research


Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, 23, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russia; е-mail:


Scotch pine, female reproductive structures, histogenesis, rhythmophenology, seeds.


1. Belostotskaya S.Kh. Osobennosti razvitiya muzhskogo i zhenskogo gametofitov sosny obyknovennoy pri vnutri- i mezhvidovoy gibridizatsii [Features of Development of Male and Female Gametophytes in Scotch Pine at Intra- and Interspecific Hybridization]. Lesovedenie, 1979, Vol. 5, pp. 61–72. 2. Jensen W. Botanicheskaya gistokhimiya [Botanical Histochemistry]. Moscow, 1965. 380 p. 3. Koveshnikova N.M., Sedel'nikova I.V. Sokhrannost' neopylennykh strobilov sosny obyknovennoy i tsitoembriologicheskie osobennosti razvitiya semyapochek v nikh [The Safe-ty of Non-Pollinated Strobiles in Scotch Pine and Cytoembryological Features of the Devel-opment of Ovules in Them]. Voronezh, 1981. 14 p. 4. Pausheva Z.P. Praktikum po tsitologii rasteniy [Practical Handbook on Plants Cy-tology]. Moscow, 1970. 255 p. 5. Tret'yakova I.N. Embriologiya khvoynykn: fiziologicheskie aspekty [Embryoligy of Coniferous Trees: Physiological Aspects]. Novosibirsk, 1990. 157 p. 6. Allen G.S., Owens J.N. The life history of Douglas fir. Ottawa, 1972. 140 p. 7. Bingham R.T., Squillace A.E. Self-compatibility and effects of self-sterility in Western white pine. For. Sci. 1955, Vol. 1, pp. 8–121. 8. Forshell P.C. The development of cones and seeds in case of self- and cross-pollination in Pinus silvestris L. Meddeland. Stat. Skogsfors. Inst. 1953, Vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1–42. 9. Kormut?k A. Cytological evidence for incompatibility in the genus Pinus – Bio-l?gia (Bratislava), 1975, Vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 765–769. 10. Kormut?k A. Some cytological and biochemical aspects of interspecific incom-patibility in pines (Pinus sp.) Acta Dendrobiol. 1984, Vol. 7. 93 p. 11. Koski V. Embryonic lethals of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris – Comm. Inst. For. Fenn. 1971, Vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 1–30. 12. Kriebel H.B. Embryo development and hybridity barriers in the white pines (Sec-tion Strobus) – Silv. Genet. 1972, Vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 39–44. 13. McWilliam J.R. The role of the micropyle in the pollination of Pinus – Bot. Gaz. 1958, Vol. 120, pp. 109–117. 14. McWilliam J.R. Interspecific incompatibility in Pinus – Amer. J. Bot. 1959, Vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 425–433. 15. Mergen F. Jeffery B., Furnival J.M. Embryo and seedling development in Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss. after self-, cross-, and wind-pollination – Silv. Genet. 1965, Vol. 14, pp. 188–194. 16. M?ntzing A. Hybrid incompatibility and the origin of polyploidy – Heredites. 1933, no. 18, pp. 33–55. 17. Orr-Ewig A.L. A cytological study of the effects of self-pollination on Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco – Silv. Genet. 1957, Vol. 6, pp. 179–185. 18. Sarvas R. Investigations into the flowering and seed quality of forest trees – Comm. Inst. For. Fennica. 1955, Vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1–37. 19. Sarvas R. Investigations on the flowering and seed crop of Pinus sylvestris – Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 1962, Vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1–198. 20. Singh H. Embryology of Gymnosperms. – Berl.-Stuttg.: Gerb. Borntraeg., 1978. 304 p.

Microphenology of the Female Reproductive Cycle and Structure of Seed Crops of Scotch Pine in the Northern Taiga


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"