Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Intraspecific Diversity of Pinus sylvestris L. in Provenance Trials of the Central Russian Forest-Steppe Area. P. 84–98

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

T.E. Galdina, A.I. Chernodubov, M.I. Mikhailova

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 1.5MB )






The provenance trials of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Central Russian forest-steppe area were established by M.M. Veresen in 1959. They have become a natural laboratory for genetic and environmental research in order to solve the practical issues of forest seed zoning. The study of the intraspecific diversity of the provenance trials makes it possible to distinguish patterns in the formation of species with various origins under the influence of different ecological, genetic, and climatic conditions. This article presents the results of a multi-year research project. This allows us to state with full responsibility the strong influence of environmental and genetic factors on the characteristics of growth, resistance, trunk productivity, and reproductive capacity of Scots pine in new growing conditions. The generative parts of the study objects were also examined by morphometric indicators. The changes were revealed in seed production, size, cone coloring, color and weight of 1000 pieces of seeds, seed release, seed fullness, germinative energy, and absolute germination. Genetic factors, which are programmed by ancestry, define the constancy of the difference in size and color of cones and seeds. In addition, genetic factors, along with the weather conditions of a new location, regulate reproductive ability. It was noted that Scots pine with different geographical origins enters the flowering phase at different times. The northern trees are 5–7 days earlier than locals; the southern trees are 5 days later. They were studied in the climate of the Voronezh region. The variability in the characteristics of the generative organs of Scots pine is also affected by its place of birth. The size and weight of the cone are directly related to the geographic latitude. The length and weight of the cone increase with movement from north to south. There is no strict relationship between the release of the seeds during free pollination and the place of origin since the study objects were surrounded by various pollinators. The weight of 1000 seeds changes with the same regularity as in natural stands of pine: it increases with the geographical latitude of the origin. Consequently, under the influence of new growing conditions, Scots pine is strongly affected by its genetic factors that determine the stability, trunk productivity, and reproductive capacity of the species.


Tatyana E. Galdina*, Candidate of Agriculture, Assoc. Prof.; ResearcherID: AAR-5879-2020, ORCID:
Alexey I. Chernodubov, Doctor of Agriculture, Prof.; ORCID:
Maria I. Mikhailova, Postgraduate Student; ORCID:


Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov, ul. Timiryazeva, 8, Voronezh, 394087, Russian Federation;*,


provenance trials, Scots pine, reproductive ability, phenological observations, seeds, generative organs, weight of 1000 seeds, cone weight, cone length, cone thickness, seed release, seed coloring, seed germination energy, germination

For citation

Galdina T.E., Chernodubov A.I., Mikhailova M.I. Intraspecific Diversity of Pinus sylvestris L. in Provenance Trials of the Central Russian Forest-Steppe Area. Lesnoy Zhurnal = Russian Forestry Journal, 2023, no. 3, pp. 84–98. (In Russ.).


  1. Agafonova G.V. The Influence of the Origin of Pine Seeds on the Growth of Seed Offspring in the Middle Urals. Increasing Forest Productivity in the Urals. Sverdlovsk, USFEU Publ., 1990. pp. 106–109. (In Russ.).

  2. Galdina T.E. Growth of Scots Pine in Provenance Trials of the Central Forest-Steppe. Dendroecology and Forest Science: Proceedings of All-Russian Conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Siberian Branch of RAS, Krasnoyarsk, 02–04 October 2007. Krasnoyarsk, FRC KSC SB RAS Publ., 2007, pp. 30–32. (In Russ.).

  3. Galdina T.E., Romanova M.M. Studying the Growth Characteristics of Pine Provenance Trials in the Central Forest-Steppe. Nauchnyy zhurnal KubGAU = Scientific Journal of KubSAU, 2017, no. 127(03), pp. 865–874. (In Russ.).

  4. Galdina T.E., Romanova M.M., Tokoreva M.O. The State of Provenance Trials of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Central Forest-Steppe. Nauchnyy zhurnal KubGAU = Scientific Journal of KubSAU, 2012, no. 77 (03), pp. 10–20. (In Russ.).

  5. Iroshnikov A.I. Provenance Trials of Conifers in Southern Siberia. Provenance Trials and Coniferous Plantations in Siberia. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1977. pp. 4–110. (In Russ.).

  6. Kuzmin S.R. Dynamics of the Radial Growth of Scots Pine in Provenance Trials on Sod-Podzolic Sandy Soil. Khvoynye boreal’noy zony = Conifers of the Boreal Area, 2012, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 106–110. (In Russ.).

  7. Kuzmin S.R., Vaganov E.A., Kuzmina N.A., Milyutin L.I. Specificity of Wood Tracheids of Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) Climatypes in the Provenance Trial. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 2008, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 10–21. (In Russ.).

  8. Kuzmin S.R., Vaganov E.A., Kuzmina N.A., Milyutin L.I., Silkin P.P. Density of Needle Stomata in Different Scots Pine Provenances in Provenance Trials (the Angara River Basin). Lesovedenie = Russian Journal of Forest Science, 2009, no. 2, pp. 35–40. (In Russ.).

  9. Kuzmin S.R., Kuzmina N.A., Vaganov E.A. Growth Dynamics of Scots Pine in Provenance Trial Plantations. Lesovedenie = Russian Journal of Forest Science, 2013, no. 1, pp. 30–38. (In Russ.).

  10. Kuzmin S.R., Kuzmina N.A., Milyutin L.I., Muratova E.N. Intraspecific Variability in Morphological Characteristics of Scots Pine Needles in Provenance Trials of the Angara River Basin. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta = Tomsk State University Journal, 2004, no. 10, pp. 41–45. (In Russ.).

  11. Mamaev S.A. Forms of Intraspecific Variability of Woody Plants. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973. 282 p. (In Russ.).

  12. Pakharkova N.V., Kuzmina N.A., Kuzmin S.R., Efremov A.A. Morphophysiological Traits of Needles in Different Climatypes of Scots Pine in Provenance Trial. Sibirskiy ekologicheskiy zhurnal = Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2014, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 107–113. (In Russ.).

  13. Pravdin L.F. Scots Pine: Variability, Intraspecific Systematics and Selection. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964. 190 p. (In Russ.).

  14. Pravdin L.F. Intraspecific Systematics and Its Meaning for Selection. Problems of Modern Botany. Vol. 1. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1965. pp. 73–76.

  15. Pravdin L.F., VakurovA.D. Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L.) of Different Geographical Origin in the Subzone of Coniferous-Deciduous Forests. Complex Pine Forests of Coniferous-Deciduous Forests and Forest Management Methods in the Forest-Park Conditions of the Moscow Region. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1968. pp. 160–195. (In Russ.).

  16. Chernodubov A.I., Galdina T.E., Smogunova O.A. Provenance Trials of Scots Pine in the South of the Russian Plain. Monograph. Voronezh, VGLTA Publ., 2005. 128 p. (In Russ.).

  17. Beuker E., Koski V. Adaptation of Tree Populations to Climate as Reflected by Ages Provenance Tests. Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World. Poster Abstracts. IUFRO ХХ World Congress, August 6–12, 1995. Finland, Тampere, 1995, p. 248.

  18. Galdina T., Khazova E. Adaptability of Pinus sylvestris L. to Various Environmental Conditions. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, vol. 316, no. 1, p. 012002.

  19. Jonsson A., Ekberg I., Eriksson G. Flowering in a Seed Orchard of Pinus sуlvestris L. Studla Forestalia Suecica, 1976, no. 135, pp. 1–38.

  20. Oleksyn J., Tjoelker M.G., Reich P.B. Adaptation to Changing Environment in Scots Pine Populations Across a Latitudinal Gradient. Silva Fennica, 1998, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 129–140.

  21. Rehfeldt G.E., Tchebakova N.M., Parfenova Y.I., Wykoff W.R., Kuzmina N.A., Milyutin L.I. Intraspecific Responses to Climate in Pinus sylvestris: Responses to Climate in Pinus sylvestris. Global Change Biology, 2002, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 912–929.

  22. Reich P.B., Oleksyn J. Climate Warming Will Reduce Growth and Survival of Scots Pine Except in the Far North: Scots Pine Growth and Survival Following Climate Transfer. Ecology Letters, 2008, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 588–597.

  23. Savolainen O., Bokma F., Garcia-Gil R. Genetic Variation in Cessation of Growth and Frost Hardiness and Consequences for Adaptation of Pinus sylvestris to Climatic Changes. Forest Ecology and Management, 2004, vol. 197, no. 1-3, pp. 79–89.

  24. Suvanto S., Nöjd P., Henttonen H.M., Beuker E., Mäkinen H. Geographical Patterns in the Radial Growth Response of Norway Spruce Provenances to Climatic Variation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2016, vol. 222, pp. 10–20.


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"