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Theoretical and Experimental Substantiation of the Nature of Interaction between Modified Binders and Wood. P. 153–163

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Dmitry S. Rusakov, Galina S. Varankina, Anatoly N. Chubinsky

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There are numerous methods for analyzing surface phenomena when bonding wood materials, mutual arrangement of pores in the wood substrate, and depth of liquid adhesive penetration into wood. Electron microscopic methods such as atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy are used along with optical methods. They allow evaluating the influence of factors describing the interaction between the liquid adhesive molecules and the porous wood surface. Phenol formaldehyde resin modified with pectol and urea formaldehyde resin modified with lignosulfonates were used for substantiation of the interaction mechanism between modified adhesives and wood. Electron microscopy was used to study the depth of adhesive penetration into veneer. The plywood was produced using modified urea and phenol formaldehyde adhesives. After conditioning, samples with a thickness of 0.025 mm were cut out and examined with a scanning electron microscope. The article shows that the interaction between liquid phenol formaldehyde adhesive modified with pectol and wood results in a sequential increase in the molecular weight of the substances and, consequently, in the penetration degree (depth). The studied wood species (birch, pine and larch) and modified thermosetting urea and phenol formaldehyde adhesives are polar materials (adhesive interacts with wood molecules with the formation of intermolecular bonds, including hydrogen bonds). The molecular weight growth and the freely joined nature of the main chain (liquid modified adhesive macromolecules), which contains a large number of polar functional groups (adhesive and wood), promote intermolecular association. The formation of an adhesive bond between urea formaldehyde adhesive modified with lignosulfonates and wood occurs due to chemical interaction between hydroxyl groups of cellulose macromolecules and methoxyl groups of urea resin with the formation of esters (hydrogen atoms of hydroxyl groups OH are substituted with hydrocarbon radicals R). The formation of a bond between the adhesive and the wood surface is the result of molecular interaction forces at the liquid adhesive – wood interface, when the distance between molecules of the same polarity (adhesive and wood) is less than 0.5 nm. Then, adsorption equilibrium sets in.


Dmitry S. Rusakov, Candidate of Engineering, Assoc. Prof.; ORCID:
Galina S. Varankina*, Doctor of Engineering, Prof.; ResearcherID: H-1922-2019, ORCID:
Anatoly N. Chubinsky, Doctor of Engineering, Prof.; ResearcherID: I-9432-2016, ORCID:


Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University named after S.M. Kirov, Institutskiy per., 5, Saint Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation;,*,


phenol formaldehyde resin, urea formaldehyde resin, modified adhesive, interaction between modified adhesive and wood, mechanism of interaction between modified adhesive and wood, surface phenomena at the interface, liquid adhesive penetration depth

For citation

Rusakov D.S., Varankina G.S., Chubinsky A.N. Theoretical and Experimental Substantiation of the Nature of Interaction between Modified Binders and Wood. Lesnoy Zhurnal = Russian Forestry Journal, 2022, no. 6, pp. 153–163. (In Russ.).


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