Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



The Use of Flat Rafting Units during the Initia Timber Rafting

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

V.V. Vasiliev, D.N. Afonichev

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.4MB )






The prohibition of drift floating used in the initial timber rafting led to an increase in the cost of supplying timber to consumers. Nowadays, the technology for rafting operations on small and medium-sized rivers is developing in two directions. The first is the use of bunches (micro-bundles) in initial timber rafting which, after rafting along the rivers with limiting rafting dimensions, are joined together to form, for example, a two-tiered bunch of rafting units. The second is the use of flat rafting units in initial timber rafting. In order to implement modern flat rafting units in initial timber rafting, an in-depth substantiation of the economic advantages of these rafting units compared to micro-bundles is required. The article proposes to carry out the assessment by using an inequality. At one end the inequality expresses the costs for rafting of flat rafting units with their subsequent joining into larger timber transportation units, drift floating of flat rafting units, forming rafts from them, towing these rafts, purchasing machines and equipment to organize rafting, and expenses for hauling the timber, which remain from the wood harvested during the year due to the close of navigation and limitation of rafting volume by insufficient carrying capacity, by overland transport. At the other end the inequality expresses similar parameters for micro-bundle rafting. Analytical dependencies setting up the above-mentioned parameters are found. The costs for timber hauling by overland transport considered in the method indicate that due to inefficient use of the carrying capacity of the rafting stroke the volume of timber rafting on a given section of the rafting route decreases. Consequently, there is a need to deliver the remaining timber to floating depots by land transport. The implementation of flat rafting units in initial timber rafting should provide higher carrying capacity of a rafting route compared to micro-bundles by reducing the draft and hence the volume of timber delivered to the floating depots by expensive overland transport.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license • The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest


Vladimir V. Vasiliev1, Candidate of Engineering; ResearcherID: ABG-5020-2021, ORCID:
Dmitry N. Afonichev2, Doctor of Engineering, Prof.; ResearcherID: J-8541-2017, ORCID:


1Branch of AO “EFKO Management Company”, ul. Frunze, 2, Alekseevka, Belgorod Region, 309850, Russian Federation; e-mail:
2Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great, ul. Michurina, 1, Voronezh, 394087, Russian Federation; e-mail:


initial timber rafting, flat rafting unit, raft, efficiency of rafting, dimensions of the rafting stroke, carrying capacity of the rafting route

For citation

Vasiliev V.V., Afonichev D.N. The Use of Flat Rafting Units during the Initial Timber Rafting. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2022, no. 1, pp. 128–142. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2022-1-128-142


1. Belenov I.A., Dmitriyev Yu.Ya., Patyakin V.I., Serbskiy V.K. Fundamentals of Design of Timber-Rafting Objects. Moscow, Ekologiya Publ., 1992. 128 p.
2. Vasiliev V.V. Transport and Technological Schemes for Supply of Forest Products by Trasnport’s Various Type. Aktual’nye napravlenia naucnyh issledovanij XXI veka: teoria i praktika [Current Directions of Scientific Research of the XXI Century: Theory and Practice], 2014, vol. 2, no. 3-2(8-2), pp. 47–50.
3. Vasiliev V.V. Besperevalochny Transportation of Wood by Various Type of Transport. Aktual’nye napravlenia naucnyh issledovanij XXI veka: teoria i praktika [Current Directions of Scientific Research of the XXI Century: Theory and Practice], 2014, vol. 2, no. 3-4(8-4), pp. 182–186.
4. Vasiliev V.V., Aksenov I.I. Analysis of Structures of Perspective Flat Rafting Units. Improving the Efficiency of Resource Use in Agricultural Production – New Technologies and Equipment of a New Generation for the Agro-Industrial Complex: Collection of Academic Papers of the XX International Scientific and Practical Conference. Tambov, Studiya pechati Galiny Zolotovoy Publ., 2019, pp. 188–191.
5. Saarbrucken (Германия): LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2014. 284 с. Vasiliev V.V., Afonichev D.N. Improved Timber Rafting Systems. Saarbrucken, Germany, LAP, 2014. 284 p.
6. Water Transport of the Forest: Handbook. Content by E.N. Gavrilova, A.A. Gonik, I.P. Donskoy, G.A. Zhukov, M.P. Lazarev, S.I. Nefedov, Ya.P. Petrov, V.V. Savel’yev, S.S. Filimonov, G.F. Shul’ts. Moscow, Goslesbumizdat Publ., 1963. 560 p.
7. Voitko P.F., Tsarev E.M., Gaisin I.G., Roshchina M.M. Feasibility of Construction Flat Raft Section for Initial Wood Floating. Lesnoy vestnik [Forestry Bulletin], 2018, vol. 22, no. 6, рр. 88–94. DOI:
8. Donskoy I.P. Water Transport of the Forest. Moscow, Lesnaya promyshlennost’ Publ., 1973. 288 p.
9. Kukolevskiy G.A., Zaytsev A.A. Initial Timber Rafting. Moscow, Lesnaya promyshlennost’ Publ., 1976. 88 p.
10. Mitrofanov A.A. Forest Rafting. New Technologies, Scientific and Technical Support. Arkhangelsk, ASTU Publ., 2007. 492 p.
11. Posypanov S.V. Numerical Determination of the Geometric Parameters of a Transport Floating Roundwood Bundle. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2017, no. 1, pp. 141–153. DOI:
12. Posypanov S.V. Dimensional Determination of a Two-Storied Package Rafting Unit Placed on a Solid Basement. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2019, no. 5, pp. 135–147. DOI:
13. Akay A.E., Sessions J. Applying the Decision Support System, TRACER, to Forest Road Design. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 2005, vol. 20, iss. 3, pp. 184–191. DOI:
14. Andoh T., Andoh H. Metal Ring for Fastening Parts by Means of Ocean Wave Force. Patent US no. US 3662413 A, 1972.
15. Gerasimov Yu., Katarov V. Effect of Bogie Track and Slash Reinforcement on Sinkage and Soil Compaction in Soft Terrains. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 2010, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 35–45.
16. Hınıslıoğlu S., Ağar E. Use of Waste High Density Polyethylene as Bitumen Modifier in Asphalt Concrete Mix. Materials Letters, 2004, vol. 58, iss. 3-4, pp. 267–271. DOI:
17. Merzlyakov V.P. Physical and Mechanical Conditions for Primary Frost Crack Formation. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 2016, vol. 53, iss. 4, pp. 221-225. DOI:
18. Skrypnikov A., Dorokhin S., Kozlov V.G., Chernyshova E.V. Mathematical Model of the Statistical Identification of Car Transport Informational Provision. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2017, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 511–515.
19. Skrypnikov A.V., Kozlov V.G., Belyaev A.N., Chernyshova E.V. Theoretical Foundations of the Method of Designing a Clothoid Track with Approximation of Succession of Points. Perspectives on the Use of New Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Modern Economy. Ed. by E. Popkova, V. Ostrovskaya. Cham, Springer, 2019, pp. 654–657. DOI:
20. Skrypnikov A.V., Kozlov V.G., Samtsov V.V., Nikitin V.V., Denisenko V.V., Boltnev D.E. Theoretical Background of Road Landscape Zoning. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, vol. 659, no. 1, art. 012011. DOI:
21. Syunev V., Sokolov A., Konovalov A., Katarov V., Seliverstov A., Gerasimov Yu., Karvinen S., Välkky E. Comparison of Wood Harvesting Methods in the Republic of Karelia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 120. Vantaa, Finland, MELTA, 2009. 117 p.
22. Yin S. Development of Recycled Polypropylene Plastic Fibres to Reinforce Concrete. PhD Thesis. Singapore, Springer, 2017. 137 р. DOI:
23. Yukawa Sh. Method for Transporting Timbers by Sea. Patent US no. US 3450279 A, 1969.


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"