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Cytogenetic Characteristics of Seed Progeny of Scots Pine Plus Tree Clones in Karelia

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R.V. Ignatenko, M.A. Ershova, N.A. Galibina, B.V. Raevsky

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The article describes the cytogenetic parameters of seed progeny of Pinus sylvestris plus trees growing in the Petrozavodsk seed orchard of the first order. P. sylvestris normal trees from the natural pine phytocenosis in the Pryazha region (Karelia) were taken as a control. The following indicators were considered: relative DNA content, number of chromosomes, frequency and types of mitosis pathologies at the metaphase, anaphase and telophase stages (in % of the total number of dividing cells at the same stages). It was found that the root meristem of the P. sylvestris seed progeny contains 24 chromosomes in the diploid set. Single aneuploid cells (2n = 23; 2n = 25) were found in the studied plants. The most frequent is monosomy (2n = 23). It made up 81 % of the total number of aneuploid cells. The relative DNA content in the young needles of pine seedlings of plus clones and normal trees was 42.07±0.21 and 42.95±0.04 pg, respectively, and the difference between the two was statistically significant (U-test, p ˂ 0.01). Cytogenetic analysis revealed 7 types of mitosis pathologies: chromosome fragmentation, chromosome bridges, chromosome overlap, isolation of chromosomes and groups of chromosomes, chromosome lagging, multipolar mitosis and complex abnormalities. Chromosome overlap was the most common pathology in the general mitotic disorders spectrum. Comparison of mitosis pathologies in two general samples of normal trees and plus tree clones showed that they significantly differ by the following mitosis abnormalities: overlap and isolation of chromosomes in metaphase, fragmentation, lagging, bridges and multipolar mitosis in the anaphase and telophase. The study shows that the proportion of cells with mitosis abnormalities in the seed progeny of normal trees was about 1.5 times higher than of plus tree clones, and is equal 3.44±0.32 and 2.38±0.14 % (U-test, p = 0.05), respectively. The data obtained demonstrate the cytogenetic stability of the seed progeny of P. sylvestris clones from the Petrozavodsk seed orchard of the first order, which in turn may indicate the high quality of the seed material.

Acknowledgments: We would like to express our gratitude to the staff of the Laboratory for Plant Biotechnology of the KarRC RAS and, in person, Candidate of Agriculture, Deputy Director for Science of the Forest Research Institute of the KarRC RAS S.A. Moshnikov and Researcher of the Laboratory for Boreal Forest Dynamics and Production V.A. Kharitonov for their assistance in collecting the field material. We are grateful to the N. I. Vavilov All- Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources for the provision of Triticum aestivum seeds and the Diaem Company for the opportunity to carry out the research on an Attune NxT Flow Cytometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license • The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest


Roman V. Ignatenko, Candidate of Biology; ResearcherID: A-7616-2019, ORCID:
Maria A. Ershova, Postgraduate Student; ResearcherID: AAP-1610-2020, ORCID:
Nataliya A. Galibina, Doctor of Biology; ResearcherID: H-8664-2017, ORCID:
Boris V. Raevsky, Doctor of Agriculture; ResearcherID: K-6424-2018, ORCID:


Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910, Russian Federation; e‑mail:


Pinus sylvestris, forest seed orchards, chromosomal abnormalities, DNA content, mitosis pathologies


The research was funded from the federal budget to fulfil the state assignment of the Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KarRC RAS) No. 0185‑2019‑0093.

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Ignatenko R.V., Ershova M.A., Galibina N.A., Raevsky B.V. Cytogenetic Characteristics of Seed Progeny of Scots Pine Plus Tree Clones in Karelia. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2022, no. 1, pp. 9–22. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2022-1-9-22


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