Fraud Warning
We officially declare that NO MONEY from authors and members of the Editorial Board IS CHARGED! A big request to ignore spam e-mails.

Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18


Sustainable Technologies at Severance Cuttings in the Ural Training Experimental District Forestry of the Ural State Forest Engineering University

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

N.N. Terinov, E.F. Gerts, A.V. Mekhrentsev

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.9MB )






The paper considers the experience of severance cutting with the use of a minitractor at the forest skidding. The minitractor was equipped with a driver's seat, a drum winch (a cable length is 20 m) and a drag cart designed for transportation of logs with a length of 2…6 m. The work was carried out in a high-density pure middle-aged pine forest. The felling area was 1.8 ha. A complex microrelief and a developed road-trail network characterized the site. The planned intensity of felling was 12.0 % of the initial stock of the stand, the actual harvest was 13.3 %, which corresponded to the parameters of selective cutting of low intensity. The distance of skidding of harvested wood in the form of assortments averaged 30 m. The range of works from felling to skidding of harvested wood and disposal of logging residue was carried out by one worker. The non-cutting technology for the development of the felling area was applied. Two variants of wood harvesting were investigated: the first provided loading of one cut tree trunk and lopping onto a cart and transport them to the loading point; the second variant considered the alternate movement of assortments by the winch of the minitractor to the place of loading. The total time required for harvesting of one tree on average was 21...22 min, for collection and storage of logging residues ‒ an additional 2...10 min. In both variants of harvesting with the base quantity of cut trees with a diameter at the chest height of 12...16 cm, the productivity of the minitractor at the skidding of merchantable wood was 0.5 m3/h. With an increase in the diameter of cut trees to 28...30 cm, the performance of the minitractor increased to 1.1 m3/h. The authors make a guess that the performance of the minitractor can be increased by reducing the operator's walking passage, which is achieved by installing a winch remote control system. The first variant with skidding of only one trunk with a tree crown is most preferable with very weak and weak intensity of selective felling, a non-cutting technology and the diameter of cut trees at a chest height of at least 20 cm. The second method, when a minitractor is used as a self-propelled winch, is worth if the distance of the skidding does not exceed 15...20 m, i. e. it has a restriction on the length of the winch cable. The least prolonged operation of the technological process is tree felling, the longest one is the loading of assortments and lopping onto a tractor cart. 5.6 and 39.4 % of the total expenditure of time are spent on them, respectively 78 % of operations are related to the operation of the minitractor (idling, loading, inhauling and unloading).


N.N. Terinov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Leading Researcher
E.F. Gerts, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor
A.V. Mekhrentsev, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Authors job

Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskiy trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620100, Russia Federation; e-mail:,,


severance cutting, minitractor, skidding, productivity

For citation

Terinov N.N., Gerts E.F., Mekhrentsev A.V. Sustainable Technologies at Severance Cuttings in the Ural Training Experimental District Forestry of the Ural State Forest Engineering University. Lesnoy zhurnal [Forestry journal], 2018, no. 4, pp. 87–96. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2018.4.87


1. Valyazhonkov V.D., Myasishchev D.G. Osobennosti maloy mekhanizatsii leso-zagotovok za rubezhom [Peculiarities of Small Mechanization of Forest Harvesting Abroad]. Lesnoy zhurnal [Forestry journal], 2005, no. 6, pp. 64–69.
2. Pravila ukhoda za lesami: utv. prikazom № 626 Ministerstva prirodnykh resursov i ekologii RF ot 22.11.2017 g. [Items of Forest Care: Approved by the Order No. 626 of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation of 22 November 2017]. Moscow, 2017. 164 p.
3. Semin I.A. Malogabaritnyye lesozagotovitel’nyye mashiny Skandinavskikh stran [Small-scale Forest Machines of Scandinavian Countries]. Moscow, National Research and Design Institute for Economics, Production Management and Information in the Forest, Pulp and Paper and Timber Processing Industry Publ., 1999. 10 p. (In Russ.)
4. Terinov N.N., Gerts E.F., Bezgina Yu.N. Malogabaritnyy traktor dlya rubok ukhoda i ego vliyaniye na lesnuyu sredu [Compact Tractor for Thinning and Its Influence on the Forest Environment]. Agrarnaya Rossiya [Agrarian Russia], 2015, no. 7, pp. 27–31.
5. Ushnitskiy A.A. Obosnovaniye parametrov malogabaritnoy tyagovo-transportnoy mashiny dlya rubok promezhutochnogo pol’zovaniya: avtoref. dis. ... kand. tekhn. nauk [Jus-tification of the Parameters of a Compact Traction Vehicle for Intermediate Felling: Cand. Eng. Sci. Diss. Abs.]. Krasnoyarsk, 2006. 25 p.
6. Forvarder dlya maloob”yemnykh lesozagotovok [Forwarder for Low-Volume Logging]. Lesopromyshlennik [The Timber Industry Worker], 2007, no. 3. Available at: (accessed 15.12.2017).
7. Allen R., Hurst J., Wiser S., Easdale T. Developing Management Systems for the Production of Beech Timber. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 2012, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 38–44.
8. McEwan A., Brink M., van Zyl S. Guidelines for Difficult Terrain Ground Based Harvesting Operations in South Africa. ICFR Bulletin, 2013, no. 02. 149 p.
9. Salakka J. Identifying Appropriate Small Scale Harvesting Technologies for Commercial Scale Bamboo Fuel Chip Production in Lao PDR: Degree Program in Forestry. Thesis. Joensuu, Finland, 2014. 63 p.
10. Spinelli R., Magagnotti N., Relaño R.L. An Alternative Skidding Technology to the Current Use of Crawler Tractors in Alpine Logging Operations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2012, vol. 31, pp. 73–79.
11. Vusić D., Šušnjar M., Marchi E., Spina R., Zečić Ţ., Picchio R. Skidding Opera-tions in Thinning and Shelterwood Cut of Mixed Stands – Work Productivity, Energy Inputs and Emissions. Ecological Engineering, 2013, vol. 61, part A, pp. 216–223.

Received on January 15, 2018

Sustainable Technologies at Severance Cuttings in the Ural Training Experimental District Forestry of the Ural State Forest Engineering University