Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Recreational Load and Mechanical Erosion on the Mountainsides in the Forests of Colchis

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

V.M. Ivonin, I.V. Voskoboynikova

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.4MB )




DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2017.1.64


The goal of research is to study the impact of recreation on the mechanical erosion processes and to obtain data on the acceptable level of recreational load in the forests of Colchis. The following research methods are used: modeling of recreation loads; determination of the soil weight, fragments of forest litter and grass, moved down the slope by tourists. The dry weight of forest litter and grass on the average does not exceed 4.0 t/ha in the absence of recreational loads on the gorge slopes in the forests of Colchis. With the increase of recreational load the litter and grass are gradually destroyed and, together with the soil, move to the base of slope. Mechanical soil erosion under the influence of the feet of tourists is divided into the following stages: 1) (recreational load - 1 person/ha.) the partial destruction of forest litter and grass cover with transportation of their fragments along the slope; 2) (1 ... 9 persons/ha) repeats the first stage and involves the complete destruction and transportation of fragments of litter and grass with the soil down the slope; 3) (> 9 persons/ha), repeats the second stage, involves the soil transportation without the fragments of forest litter and grasses. Average recreational loads, at which mechanical erosion is not observed, are established: at the slope inclination up to 10? recreational load is less than 5.1 persons/ha; at the slope inclination of 15 – 3.4 persons/ha; at the slope inclination of 20 – 1.6 persons/ha. If the slope inclination is greater or equal to 25, mechanical erosion is evident for all levels of recreational load.


V.M. Ivonin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
I.V. Voskoboynikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor


Novocherkassk Engineering and Land Reclamation Institute named after A.K. Kortunov, Branch of the Don State Agrarian University, Pushkinskaya ul., 111, Novocherkassk, 346428, Russian Federation; e-mail:


Colchis, forest, tourism, recreational load, mechanical erosion

For citation

Ivonin V.M., Voskoboynikova I.V. Recreational Load and Mechanical Erosion on the Mountainsides in the Forests of Colchis. Lesnoy zhurnal [Forestry journal], 2017, no. 1, pp. 64–72. DOI: 10.17238/issn0536-1036.2017.1.64


1. Ivonin V.M., Voskoboynikova I.V. Vliyanie turizma na protsessy erozii pochv v lesakh nizkogoriy Severo-Zapadnogo Kavkaza [The Impact of Tourism on Soil Erosion in the Forests of Low Mountains of the North-West Caucasus]. Nauchnyy zhurnal Rossiyskogo NII problem melioratsii [Scientific Journal of Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems], 2014, no. 4(16), pp. 87–104. Available at: http://www.
2. Ivonin V.M., Voskoboynikova I.V. Ekologicheskoe obosnovanie rekreatsionnoy nagruzki v kolkhidskikh lianovykh lesakh [Ecological Substantiation of Recreational Load in the Liane Forests of Colchis]. Lesovedenie [Russian Journal of Forest Science], 2008, no. 4, pp. 50–56.
3. Ivonin V.M., Voskoboynikova I.V., Pen'kovskiy N.D., Bagdasaryan A.A. Rek-omendatsii po osushchestvleniyu rekreatsionnoy deyatel'nosti v lesakh Zapadnogo Kavkaza [Recommendations for the Implementation of Recreational Activities in the Forests of the Western Caucasus]. Novocherkassk, 2015. 42 p.
4. Ivonin V.M., Voskoboynikova I.V., Pen'kovskiy N.D., Bagdasaryan A.A. Eroziya pochv pri osushchestvlenii rekreatsionnoy deyatel'nosti v lesakh Severo-Zapadnogo Kavkaza: monogr. [Soil Erosion Due to Recreational Activity in the Forests of the North-West Caucasus]. Rostov-on-Don, 2015. 202 p.
5. Ivonin V.M., Pen'kovskiy N.D. Lesomelioratsiya landshaftov. Nauchnye issledovani-ya: ucheb. posobie [Landscape Forest Melioration. Research]. Rostov-on-Don, 2003. 151 p.
6. Makarova M.S., Zatsarinnyy V.A. Peremeshchenie plasta pochvy pri vspashke sklonovykh poley [Moving of the Soil Layer During the Plowing of Sloping Fields]. Mek-hanizatsiya i elektrifikatsiya sel'skogo khozyaystva, 2008, no. 8, pp. 16–18.
7. Rakhimov Z.S. Mekhanicheskaya eroziya pochvy na sklonakh [The Mechanical Soil Erosion on the Slopes]. Traktory i sel'skokhozyaystvennye mashiny [Tractors and Agri-cultural Machinery], 2005, no. 5, pp. 37–38.
8. Franke J. Costa Rica's National Parks and Preserves. US, WA, Seattle, 2009. 269 p.
Received on January 10, 2016

Recreational Load and Mechanical Erosion on the Mountainsides in the Forests of Colchis


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"