Address: 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk 163002 Russian Federation. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov. Office 1425

Phone / Fax: (818-2) 21-61-18



Fir Spruce Growth and Development Under the Influence of Intraspecific Polymorphism

Версия для печати
Creative Commons License
These works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Yu.I. Makarov

Complete text of the article:

Download article (pdf, 0.7MB )






The researches carried out in the territory of Vologda region in the subzones of the southern and middle taiga in the sorrel and bilberry spruce stands were focused on the characteristics of intraspecific variation of fir spruce (Picea abies) which had been formed in the felling sites of previous years as well as the assessment of the their productivity and identification of the most promising for the cultivation intraspecific forms. Collecting of material and es-tablishment of the sampling areas were carried out according to the requirements of the State Standard of the RF 16128–70, Industrial Standard of the RF 56-69–83 and guidelines of V.N. Sukachev and S.V. Zonn in the young, middle-aged, ripening and mature stands. The nature of the bark structure was determined at a breast height, the branching type – at the branches growing in the middle of the crown. We revealed 4 forms of spruce according to the nature of the bark structure: smooth, scaly, platelike and longitudinally fissured bark. With age there was a redistribution of forms occurrence due to the transformation of one form into another. More clearly the transformation was observed in the middle-aged plant-ings where the share of trees with smooth bark was reduced by 35 % in the number of stems and by 27 % – in the stock. We revealed 3 forms of spruce according to the branching type: flat, corymbose and comb-shaped. Spruce with corymbose and comb-shaped branching types was the most productive. All three branching types occurred at the trees with differing nature of the bark structure. The smooth form of bark with the flat branching type predomi-nated in the young stands (22 %), the scaly forms with the comb-shaped branching type – in the middle-aged and ripening stands (23 % and 14 % respectively). The average diameter of trees with longitudinally fissured bark was longer than of the other forms. Trees with plate-like and longitudinally fissured bark had higher indicators of average values of height. In general, the leaders in all indicators were the spruce forms with longitudinally fissured and platelike bark, corymbose and comb-shaped branching types. According to the Kraft domi-nance class distribution spruce with smooth bark was concentrated mostly in the III class; scaly and platelike forms occupied a dominant position, and longitudinally fissured form of bark made the predominant canopy. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the determination of promising forms of spruce for further cultivation and for the selective method of assortment of trees.


Yu.I. Makarov, Postgraduate Student


Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy by N.V. Vereshchagin, Schmidt str., 2, Molochnoe, Vologda Region, 160555, Russian Federation; е-mail:


type diversity, branching type, nature of the bark structure.


1. Al'benskiy A.V. Selektsiya drevesnykh porod i semenovodstvo [Selection of Tree Species and Seed Breeding]. Moscow; Leningrad, 1959. 305 p.
2. Iroshnikov A.I. Razvitie selektsii lesnykh drevesnykh porod v SSSR [Develop-ment of Forest Wood Species Selection in the USSR]. Dostizheniya lesnoy selektsii za 50 let [Achievements of Forest Selection for 50 Years]. Krasnoyarsk, 1967, pp. 232–256.
3. Konovalov N.A., Pugach E.A. Osnovy lesnoy selektsii i sortovogo semenovodstva [Bases of Forest Selection and Seed Breeding]. Ed. by Yu.M. Maksimova. Moscow, 1978. 173 p.
4. Kundzin'sh A.V., Gaylis Ya.Ya. Lesnaya selektsiya [Forest Selection]. Ed. by E.V. Andronova. Moscow, 1972. 200 p.
5. Popov V.Ya. Formy eli v lesakh Prikam'ya i ikh selektsionno-lesovodstvennoe znachenie: avtoref. dis. … kand. s.-kh. nauk [Spruce Forms in the Forests of the Kama Re-gion and Their Breeding and Silvicultural Value: Cand. Agric. Sci. Diss. Abs.]. Sverdlovsk, 1971. 21 p.
6. Pravdin L.F. El' evropeyskaya i el' sibirskaya v SSSR [Fir Spruce and Siberian Spruce in the USSR] Moscow, 1975. 178 p.
7. Sarnatskiy V.V. El'niki: formirovanie, povyshenie produktivnosti i ustoychivosti v usloviyakh Belarusi [Spruce Forests: Formation, Increasing of Productivity and Sustainabil-ity in Belarus]. Minsk, 2009. 334 p.
8. Vasil'evich V.I. El'niki chernichnye Evropeyskoy Rossii [Bilberry Spruce Forests of European Russia]. Botanicheskiy zhurnal, 2004, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 13–27.
9. Vasil'evich V.I. El'niki kislichnye Evropeyskoy Rossii [Sorrel Spruce Forests of European Russia]. Botanicheskiy zhurnal, 2004, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1573–1587.
10. Barton B.M. Variation in the Phenology of Bud Flushing in White and Red Spruce. Can. J. Forest Res., 1988, no. 18(3), pp. 315–319.
Received on June 09, 2015

Fir Spruce Growth and Development Under the Influence of Intraspecific Polymorphism


Make a Submission


Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal) was awarded the "Seal of Recognition for Active Data Provider of the Year 2024"