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Determination of Species Composition of Hardwood Pulp and Semi-Chemical Pulp

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E.O. Okulova, A.V. Gur'ev

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Currently, hardwood is used for production of mass fibrous semi-finished products for paper and cardboard. The wood of birch and aspen in different ratios is mainly used in Russia. The basic structural elements of deciduous wood in the semi-finished products are the fibers of a libriform of vessels. Anatomically the fibers of a libriform are very difficult to be distinguished,
but the fibers of vessels have the characteristic diagnostic features – the structure of a perforation plate. In aspen wood it is simple, in birch wood it has a ladder structure with many partitions. On the basis of the specified features the authors developed a method of computer visualization and the program algorithm to detect an aspen and birch fiber vessels.
This program is intended for the statistical analysis of the species composition of wood fibers according to micrographs. The program was tested on the samples of sulfate unbleached pulp produced from 100 % wood of aspen and birch. Mixtures were prepared by weighing with a predetermined ratio of fibers (10 % for a step). As a result of the researches
the discrepancy of the expected and actual quantity of vessels of aspen and birch is established.
To evaluate the effect of the ratio of hardwood species on the properties of semifinished products in a laboratory three ways of semi-finished products were simulated, which are mainly used in the processing of wood of aspen and birch: cooking with green
liquor and sodium-soda cooking and kraft pulping. Laboratory samples were obtained from
these semi-finished products by mixing them by the gravimetric method (20 % for a step) in the range from 0 to 100 % of one of the species. Grinding was carried out in the Yokro's mill up to 20 °SR. The analysis of the main indicators of physical and mechanical properties (breaking length, tear resistance, strength of fibre) of laboratory castings of semi-chemical pulp (125 g/m2), and bleached sulphate pulp (60 g/m2) is conducted. The difference between the calculated and the actual ratio of the number of vessels in mixtures with a given percentage
is found. The dependence of the ratio of the composite structure on the physical and mechanical properties is studied. The dynamics of deterioration in the strength properties of
the laboratory samples with the increasing share of aspen fiber in their composition is


E.O. Okulova, Postgraduate Student A.V. Gur'ev, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Authors job

Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Naberezhnaya
Severnoy Dviny, 17, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation;


hardwood vessel, computer visualization, breaking length, tear resistance, strength of fibre.


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Received on April 30, 2015

Determination of Species Composition of Hardwood Pulp and Semi-Chemical Pulp