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архив

Реконструкция истории древостоев и оценка воздействия инвазивного короеда в пихтовых лесах с помощью анализа пространственной структуры

Версия для печати

Н.М. Дебков, А. Градель, А.А. Алейников

Рубрика: Лесное хозяйство

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УДК

[630*45](571.16)

DOI:

10.37482/0536-1036-2020-3-24-41

Аннотация

На сегодняшний день в России самой масштабной и разрушительной инвазией ксилофагов в лесные экосистемы является массовое размножение уссурийского полиграфа (Polygraphus proximus Blandf.) в пихтовых (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) лесах. Цель исследования – изучение пространственной структуры пихтовых лесов и их трансформаций под воздействием уссурийского полиграфа в его вторичном (инвазивном) ареале распространения. Было выбрано 2 модельных пихтарника (около сел Итатка и Малиновка) в Томской области. Оба древостоя представляют собой естественные насаждения на участках, где отмечена лесозаготовительная деятельность, которая была вызвана образованием этих населенных пунктов во второй половине XIX в. Для сбора непространственных и пространственных данных использовали технологию Field-Map. Анализ показал, что высота, диаметр и радиальный прирост ствола пихт, погибших или сильно ослабленных при атаках уссурийского полиграфа, значительно ниже, чем у живых особей. Социальный статус пихт, подвергшихся серьезному нападению или уже погибших от Polygraphus proximus, обозначен индексом Ui как умеренно угнетенный. Установленно, что в отличие от живых пихт размещение погибших деревьев было в значительной мере сгруппировано на коротких расстояниях (около 1 м). Данный вывод совпадает с визуальными наблюдениями на других участках, где погибшие деревья были сгруппированы. Тем не менее гипотеза пространственной независимости позиций живых и погибших пихт была принята для обоих участков.
Финансирование: исследование профинансировано Российским фондом фундаментальных исследований и правительством Томской области, грант № 16-44-700782 и выполнено в рамках государственного задания Центра по проблемам экологии и продуктивности лесов Российской академии наук (№ АААА-А18-118052400130-7).

Сведения об авторах

Н.М. Дебков1,2, канд. с.-х. наук, науч. сотр.; ResearcherID: H-1146-2019,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3791-0369
А. Градель3,4, д-р наук, консультант по лесному делу; ResearcherID: AAK-1808-2020,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6298-4151
А.А. Алейников5, канд. биол. наук, ст. науч. сотр.; ResearcherID:K-1285-2017,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5715-8488
1Институт мониторинга климатических и экологических систем СО РАН, просп. Академический, д. 10/3, г. Томск, Россия, 634055; e-mail: nikitadebkov@yandex.ru
2Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет, просп. Ленина, 36, г. Томск, Россия, 634050; e-mail: nikitadebkov@yandex.ru
3Международная консалтинговая компания по лесному делу «Градель», Якобштрассе, д. 12, Герлиц, Германия, 02826; e-mail: agradel@jpberlin.de
4Факультет лесного хозяйства и лесной экологии, Гёттингенский университет имени Георга-Августа, Бюзгенвег, д. 5, Гёттинген, Германия, 37077
5Центр по проблемам экологии и продуктивности лесов РАН, ул. Профсоюзная, д. 84/32, стр. 14, Москва, Россия, 117997; e-mail: aaacastor@gmail.com

Ключевые слова

инвазии насекомых, Polygraphus proximus Blandf., Abies sibirica Ledeb., смертность деревьев, пространственно-временные характеристики

Для цитирования

Debkov N.M., Gradel A., Aleinikov A.A. Reconstruction of Stand History and Impact Evaluation of an Invasive Bark Beetle in Siberian Fir Forests with the Help of Spatial Structure Analysis. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2020, no. 3, pp. 24–41. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2020-3-24-41

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RECONSTRUCTION OF STAND HISTORY AND IMPACT EVALUATION OF AN INVASIVE BARK BEETLE IN SIBERIAN FIR FORESTS WITH THE HELP OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

N.M. Debkov1,2, Candidate of Agriculture, Researcher; ResearcherID: H-1146-2019,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3791-0369
A. Gradel3,4, PhD, Forestry Consultant; ResearcherID: AAK-1808-2020,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6298-4151
A.A. Aleinikov5, Candidate of Biology, Senior Research Scientist; ResearcherID: K-1285-2017,
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5715-8488
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. Akademicheskiy, 10/3, Tomsk, 634055, Russian Federation; e-mail: nikitadebkov@yandex.ru
2National Research Tomsk State University, prosp. Lenina, 36, Tomsk, 634055, Russian Federation; e-mail: nikitadebkov@yandex.ru
3International Forestry Consultancy Gradel, Jakobstraße 12, 02826 Görlitz, Germany; e-mail: agradel@jpberlin.de
4Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 5, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
5Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Profsoyuznaya, 84/32, str. 14, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation; e-mail: aaacastor@gmail.com

The most devastating insect invasion of forest ecosystems in Russia is the recent mass reproduction of the four-eyed fir bark beetle (Polygraphus proximus Blandf.) in southern Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) forests. The objective of our research was to study the spatial structure of fir forests and their change under the impact of the four-eyed fir bark beetle in its secondary (invasive) distribution range. We selected two fir stands located near the villages of Itatka and Malinovka in the Tomsk region. Both stands represent natural ripe succession forests on sites that previously experienced logging activities, which were triggered by settlement activities in the second half of the nineteenth century. We used Field-Map technology for gathering non-spatial and spatial stand data. The analysis showed that height, diameter and radial increment of fir trees, killed or severely weakened by attacks of the four-eyed fir bark beetle, were significantly lower than that of healthy individuals. The social status of fir trees, seriously attacked or already killed by Polygraphus proximus was indicated by the Ui index as moderately suppressed. In contrast to the distribution pattern of living firs, the pattern of dead or severally weakened firs killed by the four-eyed fir bark beetle was significantly clumped over short distances (sample plots (SP) Itatka and Malinovka). This finding coincides with visual observations in other stands, that dead trees are grouped to some extent. However, the hypothesis of spatial independence of the tree positions of living and dead firs was accepted for both plots.
Funding: The research was funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the government of Tomsk region, grant No. 16-44-700782, and carried out as part of a state assignment of the Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity of the Russian Academy of Sciences (No. АААА-А18-118052400130-7).
For citation: Debkov N.M., Gradel A., Aleinikov A.A. Reconstruction of Stand History and Impact Evaluation of an Invasive Bark Beetle in Siberian Fir Forests with the Help of Spatial Structure Analysis. Lesnoy Zhurnal [Russian Forestry Journal], 2020, no. 3, pp. 24–41. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2020-3-24-41

Keywords: insect invasions, Polygraphus proximus Blandf., Abies sibirica Ledeb., tree mortality, spatio-temporal characteristics.

Поступила 21.07.19 / Received on July 21, 2019