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Some Aspects of Forest Management and Technology in Russia of the XVIII Century

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Е.М. Lupanova

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630*902

DOI:

10.17238/issn0536-1036.2015.3.142

Annotation

The XVIII century is the formative period of forestry in Russia. Management and technolo-gies, formed during the reign of Peter the Great and up to 1730s, underwent small changes in the following decades and were preserved up to the Great Reforms, and some of them – until the late Soviet Period. The life of formed practices in that period, their influence upon the subsequent development of forestry in our country stipulate the importance of studying the issue. The article deals with the establishment of a system of the administrative control over the forests, the beginning of the formation of professional teams of specialists in forest-ry (“forstmeistery” - scientists, “waldmeistery” - officials, “strazhi” – locally responsible peasants, “oblazchiki” – workers, responsible for forming a bole form during a tree growth, “lashmany” – the woodchoppers), the first experience of forest plantations, tree selections for the needs of the Admiralty, standing tree processing, tools, methods of logging. Each stage was associated with hard physical work of many people. Particular attention is paid to the integration of saws at the Russian logging. In the XVIII century this process was sup-posed to be an important mean of modernization and environment protection. But, despite the efforts of the Government, this innovation became usual with great difficulty. Peasants accepted it as unusual and too difficult for usage. On the basis of the archival documents introduced for the first time this paper considers other inconsistencies between the regula-tions and realities of the life, the problems of wasteful attitude to materials at everyday life and forest harvesting. Among the sustainable characteristic features of Russian forest man-agement of the XVIII century the high role of physical work, low level of mechanization, conservative technologies and preference for simple and cheap methods of logging should be mentioned.

Authors

Е.М. Lupanova, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Research Assistant

Authors job

Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera), Universi-tetskaya Naberezhnaya, 3, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia; е-mail: lupanova@eu.spb.ru

Keywords

Russian history, XVIII century, forestry technologies, ax, saw, sawmills, timber-rafting, logging management.

References

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Some Aspects of Forest Management and Technology in Russia of the XVIII Century

 

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